Current applications of DNA markers, genomics and bioinformatics

00:00 05-07-2007

The availability of advance technologies such as DNA chips and the published DNA sequence of model organism such as chicken enabled new applications and research strategies. Three examples for the use in such resources are presented below:

(A) Detection of polymorphisms in the DNA enabled to divide 65 chicken populations into six clusters nicely corresponded to their geographical origins and management histories. The genetic diversity of chicken was found to be low in comparison to those of other domesticated species. World wide efforts are done to conserve the genetic resources of chickens.

(B) Bioinformatic analysis of the published sequence of the chicken genome which was supported by lab experiments revealed eight fragments which exist only on the W chromosome (female-specific sex chromosome). High homologies of these fragments to transcript sequences from chickens and other species, suggested that these sequences might be involved in sex determination mechanism. These fragments have high commercial value since they can be used for gender sorting of poultry.

(C) Two groups of diabetic susceptible Psammomys line were studied. One group that was fed with high energy diet developed diabetes, while the other that was fed with low energy diet didn't. The expression level of dozens of thousands genes in the liver tissues were simultaneously measured with expression chips. Several genes with differentiate expressions levels among the two groups might be involved in the mechanism that induce diabetes.

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